- One drink a day can increase breast cancer risk
- Poverty linked to increased harm from alcohol
- What next for reducing alcohol harm in Scotland?
- Scotland must do more to turn tide of alcohol harm
- Concern as funding for alcohol services cut
- Budget: No change in alcohol duty
- Scottish Government urged to curb alcohol marketing
- Consumers have the right to know health risks
- Chancellor urged to tackle cheap, strong cider in Budget
- Online help for families affected by alcohol
- Alcohol-free childhood is healthiest option
- SWA granted leave to appeal minimum pricing
- Drink drive warning
- Scottish Greens call for action on alcohol marketing
- Scottish Government receives European alcohol award
- SWA will appeal to UK Supreme Court
- Half of alcohol being sold under 50p per unit
- SWA urged to respect minimum pricing decision
- Alcohol and mental health are closely linked
- Minimum pricing can be implemented in Scotland
- Alcohol sold at pocket money prices
- Scotland has so much to gain from reducing how much we drink
- AFS welcomes revised alcohol consumption guidelines
- Emergency services face shocking levels of alcohol abuse
- Every child has the right to grow up safe from alcohol harm
- Public health must prevail over big business
- New toolkit to help children affected by family alcohol problems
- Price check reveals cheap cost of strong alcohol
- Sales increase underlines need for minimum pricing
- Time to kick alcohol out of sport
- Alcohol linked with stomach cancer
- AFS calls for compulsory health warnings on alcoholic drinks
- Are supermarkets 'responsible retailers' when it comes to alcohol?
- Scottish health charities call for excise duty rise to tackle cheap alcohol
- Alcohol campaigners unite to call for stronger protection from alcohol advertising to children
- New resource for people concerned about alcohol in their community
- Minimum pricing decision delayed until summer
- No completely 'safe' level of drinking
- New alcohol guidelines published
- Minimum pricing - European court ruling
- Alcohol fuels ambulance assaults
- 82% of Scots agree drink driving is unacceptable
- Scotland's alcohol strategy - what next?
- Scotland leads way in evidence-based alcohol policy
- New report reveals impact of alcohol on emergency services
- AFS appoints new chief executive
- Alcohol: a global concern
- Campaigners gather in Edinburgh for global alcohol conference
- Alcohol and pregnancy don't mix
- European Court minimum pricing opinion
- Call for minimum pricing as alcohol deaths rise
- How much are we really drinking?
- Majority of Brits harmed by other people's drinking
- Interactive map of alcohol and tobacco outlets
- Help consumers make an informed choice about alcohol
- Alcohol debate must continue
- Alcohol sponsorship in Formula 1: a dangerous cocktail
- Minimum pricing case to be heard in Europe
How much are we really drinking?
According to the 2013 Scottish Health Survey, adults in Scotland drink an average of 10.1 units of alcohol per week. Ten units is roughly the equivalent of a bottle of wine or four pints of beer.
This might not sound like a lot but within this average, there are those who do not drink alcohol at all – 20% of women and 12% of men – as well as those who are drinking at harmful levels. On average, men drink twice as much alcohol as women.
The Scottish Health Survey relies on self-reporting and we know that people tend to under-report how much they drink. This is partly because they cannot accurately recall how much they have consumed, and also because they misjudge the volume and/or the strength of the drinks they serve themselves. For example, reporting consumption as ‘one glass of wine’ could mean anything between 1 and 3 units of alcohol depending on the strength of the drink and the size of the glass.
Under-reporting in surveys means there is a gap between the amount of alcohol people say they drink, and the amount of alcohol actually sold in the UK according to official figures.
Researchers at Liverpool John Moores University suggest that some of this gap is due to people turning a blind eye to the drinks consumed on heavier drinking occasions like summer holidays, weddings and other special events. These sessions could be adding a substantial amount of alcohol to annual consumption, at both the individual and population level – up to an extra 12 million bottles of wine a week in England.
It’s likely to be a similar picture in Scotland because the Scottish Health Survey asks people about their ‘usual weekly alcohol consumption’.
All of this suggests that we are seriously underestimating our individual alcohol consumption and that means many of us are inadvertently putting our health at risk.
Alcohol is linked to a wide range of physical and mental health problems including seven types of cancer, liver damage and cardiovascular disease, as well as violence and suicides. Binge drinking is associated with additional health risks such as accidental injury.
New evidence is emerging all the time about the health risks posed by drinking. In light of this evidence, the UK’s Chief Medical Officer is currently leading a review of alcohol drinking guidelines to see if they should be updated. The review is expected to take account of scientific evidence that there is no safe threshold for alcohol and cancer risk. It is estimated that alcohol is responsible for around 12,500 cancer cases a year in the UK, yet public awareness of the link is lower than for other alcohol-related diseases.
The review will also consider if there could be merit in producing bespoke guidelines for certain groups, like older people, who may be particularly susceptible to alcohol harms.
To date, we have been familiar with official guidance referring to ‘safe’, ‘responsible’ or ‘sensible’ drinking limits. However, the evidence we now have makes it clear that no level of drinking can be guaranteed ‘safe’. All drinking carries risk and the degree of risk generally increases in line with how much is consumed.
How any new advice is communicated to the public will be equally, if not more important. Around half of Scots don’t know how many units are in a pint of beer, measure of spirits or glass of wine, and less than half can correctly identify the recommended consumption limits for their gender.
Understanding the health risks associated with drinking is necessary if we are to make informed decisions about our health and wellbeing. Life expectancy is increasing but alcohol is a leading cause of disability in older age. If we want to live longer and healthier lives then we need to be taking better account of our drinking.
Barbara O'Donnell, Acting Chief Executive